Italian Viking
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Chapter 6 - ROMAN & ETRUSCAN
Apse ____ Large semicircular or polygonal (and usually vaulted) niche protruding from the end wall of a building.  In the Christian church, it contains the altar.
Aqueduct ____ Trough carrying flowing water.  If necessary, supported by arches.
Arcade ____ Series of arches, carried by columns or piers and supporting a common wall or lintel.  In a "blind" arcade, the arches and supports are engaged (attached to the background wall) and have a decorative function.
Arch ____ In architecture, a curved structural element that spans an open space.
Atrium ____ Unroofed interior courtyard or room in a Roman house, sometimes having a pool or garden.
Barrel (or "Tunnel")  Vault ____ Continuous semicircular vault.  Also called a "tunnel" vault. 
You're going to learn a lot about vaults.  Mr. M is absolutely OBSESSED with vaults.  He'll drone on for hours about vaults.  Also apses.  Between vaults and apses, it will be a wonder you have time to learn about anything else.  (Naves, too.  But mostly vaults and apses.) So for your own protection, make sure you understand vaults.  And apses and naves
Basilica ____ Large, rectangular building, used in Roman times as centers for administration or justice, and later adapted to Christian church use.
Bay ____ One unit of a construction system of a building. Bays divide the space of a building into regular spatial units.
Buttress ____ Type of architectural support; usually massive masonry built against an exterior wall to brace the wall. Transfers the weight of the building from a higher point to the ground.
Catacomb ____ Underground cemetery.  Urns and busts of the dead were placed in niches along tunnels.
Centering ____ Temporary structure which supports the vault, arch, or dome during construction until the mortar is fully dried and the arch is self-sustaining.
Coffer ____ Recessed decorative panel that, with many similar panels, decorate ceilings or vaults.
Corbel ____ Arching technique in which each course of stone projects inward and slightly beyond the previous layer until the uppermost corbels meet.
Cross (or "Groin") Vault ____ A vault created by the intersection of two barrel vaults of equal size. A "cross vault" is also known as a "groin vault".
Cubiculum ____ Private chamber for burial in the catacombs.
Dado/Dadoes ____ Lower part of a wall, differentiated in some way (by a molding or different color) from the upper section.
Diptych ____ Two panels of equal size, usually decorated with paintings or reliefs, hinged together.
Dome ____ A round vault, usually over a circular space.  Consists of a drum and a curved masonry vault.
Drillwork ____ Technique of using a drill (duh) for the creation of certain effects in sculpture.
Egg-and-Dart ____ Decorative molding made up of an alternating pattern of round (egg) and down-ward pointing, tapered (dart) elements.
Emblema ____ An object or action represented in art as a symbol for an idea, action or other subject (as in an allegory).
Exedra/Exedrae ____ In architecture, a semicircular niche.  Small exedrae are often used as decoration.  Larger exedrae can form interior spaces, such as an apse.
Forum ____ Central square of a Roman town, often used as a market or gathering area.  Site of most community temples and administrative buildings.
Fresco ____ Painting technique in which water-based pigments are applied to a plaster surface. "Buon fresco" is applied to a surface of WET plaster, and "Fresco Secco" is applied to DRIED plaster.  Murals made by both of these techniques are known as "frescoes".
Groin (or "Cross") Vault ____ A vault created by the intersection of two barrel vaults of equal size.  A "groin vault" is also known as a "cross vault").
Herm ____ A statue that has the head and torso of a human, but the lower part is a plain, tapering pillar of rectangular shape.  Used primarily for architectural decoration..
Intuitive Perspective ____ Method of representing three dimensions without using lines and orthogonals.  It relies on instinct instead.
This would be where, back in Second Grade, you would make a drawing with lots of trees and houses, and some of the trees and houses would be gigantic and some would be teensy, and when the teacher put your pictures up on the wall for Open House, all the parents were supposed to know ("intuition".  Get it?)  that this meant that the little teensy trees and houses were really far away and the gigantic trees and houses were really close. 
And there was always this one really smart kid who also  put in medium size trees and houses, so their picture looked like it was done by a professional graphic designer compared to the other ones. I never did the medium ones.  "Intuitive Perspective" is the only kind of perspective I understand.
Jamb ____ The vertical element found in pairs on both sides of an opening in a wall, such as a door or window.
Keystone ____ The topmost stone in an arch, usually the last block to be placed. The pressure of this block holds the arch together.  Often, the keystone is larger than the others, and is decorated.
Lintel ____ Horizontal element of any material carried by two or more vertical supports to form an opening.
Meander ____ A type of two-dimensional ornament made up of continuous geometric motifs often used as a decorative border.
Menorah ____ Jewish lamp, usually in the form of a candelabrum, divided into seven or nine branches.
Nave ____ Rectangular central aisle of a basilica, two or three stories high and flanked by aisles.
Oculus/Oculi ____ Circular opening, usually found either as windows or at the apex of a dome.
Pier ____ Masonry support made up of many stones or rubble and concrete.
Pilaster ____ Engaged columnar element rectangular in format and used for decoration in architecture.
Plinth ____ Slablike base or pedestal of a column, statue, wall, building, or piece of furniture.
Rotunda ____ Any part of a building constructed in a circular (r sometimes polygonal) shape, usually producing a large open space crowned by a dome.
Spandrel ____ Area between two arches, as in an arcade.
Still Life ____ Painting that has as its subject inanimate objects, such as food, dishes, fruit or flowers.
Swag ____ Decorative device in architecture in which a loosely hanging garland is made to look as if it is constructed of flowers or gathered cloth.
Tessera /Tesserae ____ Small pieces of stone, glass or other objects pieced together with many others to create a mosaic.
Triumphal Arch ____ Freestanding, massive stone gateway with a large central arch.
Trompe L'oeil ____ Manner of painting in which the appearance of natural space is created with the express intention of fooling the eye of the viewer.
Tunnel (or "Barrel")  Vault ____ Continuous semicircular vault.  Also called a "barrel" vault.
Undercutting ____ In sculpture, a form is carved to project outward, then under.  Gives a highly three-dimensional effect with deep shadows behind the form..
Vault ____ Arched masonry structure covering that spans an interior space.
Verism ____ a style in which artists concern themselves with capturing the exterior likeness of an object or person, usually by rendering visible details in a meticulous manner.
Voussoirs ____ Oblong wedge-shaped stone blocks used to build an arch.  The topmost voussoir is called a "keystone".